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Introduction to Epidemiology

Epidemiology is critical for organizing and planning health services and targeting specific interventions. This module provides a refresher on the foundations of epidemiology. It covers the measures of frequency that include count, prevalence, and incidence in public health practice. It concludes by discussing descriptive epidemiology, which answers the questions what, who, when, and where about health events. Completing this module will improve your knowledge on descriptive data analysis, which is used to assess population health, identifying whether health issues are increasing or decreasing, where they are occurring most, and who are the most affected.

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Introduction to Advanced Epidemiology

This module explores measures of association that are used to compare groups of different people, groups across different places, or one group over time. Age-standardized data is often required when making such comparisons. The module therefore also provides an explanation of when standardization of public health data is important and how to age-standardize data. It concludes by providing details on more complex measures of potential impact, including population attributable fraction and excess mortality. Completing this module will improve your knowledge of the importance of comparing groups in epidemiology, as this helps to identify populations most affected by poor health. The population attributable fraction is then used to estimate the reduction in disease due to the removal of harmful exposures or the implementation of beneficial public health interventions.

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Sources and Uses of PH Data

Completing this module will increase your understanding of what public health data are collected, how they are collected, and how they are used for planning and programming of health services, monitoring of services and health status, and evaluation of interventions. This module provides an overview of the types and sources of public health data. The strengths and limitations of the various sources of data are also covered, as these need to be considered when using data for planning and policymaking. Further explanation is provided on how public health data are used. Monitoring and evaluation of health programs are also covered, as these are important uses of health data.

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Data Visualization and Mapping

The goal of a visualization is to allow the data to tell a story. They can help to communicate a message to your reader that may be difficult to convey in a table. The module commences with the type of data stories that can be told, as this helps you define the message you want to communicate (e.g., change, comparison, composition, or correlation). The next step is to select the most appropriate visualization based on your communication purpose and the characteristics of your data. The module then covers the most important principles that should be considered when designing a visualization. The final section discusses the purpose of the maps and the types of maps that are used to share public health information. Completing this module will provide you with the knowledge of how to select and design the best visualization to tell your story.

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Burden of Disease

Measuring the burden of disease helps clarify the impact of a health problem in a particular population or setting. Summary measures, such as disability-adjusted life years, are used to estimate the burden of diseases on population health. This module will introduce the different measures, describe how they are calculated, and provide you with an understanding of their limitations. By completing this module, you will understand how to estimate the impact of a health problem by measuring the burden of disease when comparing groups.

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Health Inequity

Understanding the social determinants of health and inequalities in a setting can help identify where health inequities exist, inform resource allocation, and tailor public health programs. This module begins with the social determinants of health and how they influence and affect health outcomes. Health inequalities and inequities are then described, and data from the World Health Organization Health Equity Assessment Toolkit (HEAT) are used to present and calculate measures of inequality. By completing this module, you will gain an understanding of health inequalities and inequities, and how to assess these for a given population.

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Evidence-Based Decision-Making

Large amounts of health data are collected by governments. Although some analysis of the data is usually done, the data are not always used in decision-making. This module provides an understanding of public health data and how it is used to inform public health planning, resource allocation, and policymaking. It provides government staff with a framework for improving the use of data for decision-making. Completing this module will help you develop a structured approach for making data-driven decisions to improve population health.


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Assessing Routine Health Data

Data should not be analyzed without careful error checking and reflection on the quality. Incorrect assumptions or misinterpretations due to poor assessment of the data can result in a wrong decision or action, which could have detrimental health effects as well as potentially waste funds that could be used more fruitfully. The module provides you with an approach for assessing routine public health data and managing data quality issues.

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Introduccion a la epidemiologia

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Introduccion a la epidemiologia avanzada

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Fuentes y Usos de Datos de Salud Publica

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Visualizacion y mapeo de datos

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Carga de Enfermedad

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Inequidad en la salud

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Toma de decisiones basada en evidencia

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Evaluacion de datos rutinarios de salud

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Medical Certification of Cause of Death Course

This electronic course on medical certification of cause of death will help physicians and other health care staff to understand the critical importance of medical certification. This will allow them to produce high quality mortality data for government agencies to effectively make evidenced-based policy decisions.

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Introduction à l’épidémiologie

L’épidémiologie est essentielle pour l’organisation et la planification des services de santé et le ciblage d’interventions précises. Ce module permet de remettre à niveau les bases de l’épidémiologie. Il couvre les mesures de fréquence qui comprennent le dénombrement, la prévalence et l’incident dans la pratique de la santé publique. Il se termine par une discussion sur l’épidémiologie descriptive qui répond aux questions « quoi, qui, quand et où » concernant les phénomènes de santé. À l’issue de ce module, vous améliorerez vos connaissances sur l’analyse des données descriptives qui sert à évaluer la santé de la population, en déterminant si les problèmes de santé augment ou diminuent, là où ils se produisent le plus et quelles sont les personnes les plus touchés.

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Analisis e Interpretacion de Datos de Siniestralidad Vial

La seguridad vial es uno de los elementos mas significativos en torno a la operación de la infraestructura, la movilidad y el comportamiento de los diferentes actores viales de las ciudades. La siniestralidad vial contribuye de manera sustancial a la morbilidad y mortalidad de la población y el conocimiento de la magnitud y circunstancias de estos eventos es necesario para orientar la toma de decisiones relacionadas a la aplicación de normas que regulan la movilidad de un país, así como a través de la concientización y de la educación de todos los actores que intervienen en las vías. Tomando la perspectiva de salud pública, este curso proporciona elementos sobre el análisis, interpretación y presentación de datos de seguridad vial, así como de los indicadores de siniestralidad vial definidos para el país de Colombia, a partir de fuentes de información existentes, que permitan la generación de líneas base para la toma de decisiones en el diseño e implementación de intervenciones efectivas y basadas en la evidencia.

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Introduction a l'epidemiologie avancee

Ce module explore les mesures d'association qui sont utilisees pour comparer des groupes de personnes differentes, des groupes dans differents lieux ou un groupe dans le temps. Des donnees normalisees en termes d'age sont souvent necessaires pour effectuer de telles comparaisons. Le module explique donc egalement quand la normalisation des donnees de sante publique est importante et comment normaliser les donnees en fonction de l'age. Il se termine par des informations sur des mesures plus complexes de l'impact potentiel, notamment la fraction attribuable dans la population et la surmortalite. En etudiant ce module, vous renforcerez vos connaissances sur l'importance de la comparaison des groupes en epidemiologie, car cela permet d'identifier les populations les plus affectees par une deterioration de la sante. La fraction attribuable dans la population est ensuite utilisee pour estimer la reduction des maladies dues a l'elimination des expositions nocives ou a la mise en oeuvre d'interventions de sante publique benefiques.

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Sources et utilisations des donnees de sante publique

En completant ce module, vous comprendrez mieux quelles donnees de sante publique sont collectees, comment elles sont collectees et utilisees pour la planification et la programmation des services de sante, le suivi des services et l'etat de sante et l'evaluation des interventions. Ce module offre une description des types et sources de donnees de sante publique. Les points forts et les limites des diverses sources de donnees sont egalement abordes, car ils doivent etre pris en compte lors de l'utilisation des donnees pour la planification et l'elaboration des politiques.  Des explications supplementaires sont donnees sur l'utilisation des donnees de sante publique. Le suivi et l'evaluation des programmes de sante sont egalement couverts car il s'agit d'utilisations importantes des donnees de sante.

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Visualisation et cartographie des donnees

L'objectif d'une visualisation est de permettre aux donnees de raconter une histoire. Elles peuvent contribuer a communiquer un message a votre lecteur qui peut etre difficile a communiquer avec un tableau. Le module commence par le type d'histoires de donnees susceptibles d'etre racontees, car cela vous aide a definir le message que vous souhaitez communiquer (par exemple changement, comparaison, composition, ou correlation).  L'etape suivante consiste a selectionner la visualisation la plus adaptee en fonction de votre objectif de communication et des caracteristiques de vos donnees. Le module couvre ensuite les principes les plus importants a prendre en compte lors de la conception d'une visualisation.  La derniere section traite de l'objectif des cartes et des types de cartes qui sont utilisees pour transmettre des informations sur la sante publique. A l'issue de ce module, vous saurez comment selectionner et concevoir la meilleure visualisation pour raconter votre histoire.

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Fardeau de la maladie

La mesure de la charge de morbidite permet de clarifier l'impact d'un probleme de sante dans une population ou un cadre particulier.  Des mesures synthetiques, telles que les annees de vie corrigees en fonction de l'incapacite, sont utilisees pour estimer la charge de morbidite sur la sante de la population.

Ce module presente les differentes mesures, decrit leur mode de calcul et vous permet de comprendre leurs limites. A l'issue de ce module, vous comprendrez comment estimer l'impact d'un probleme de sante en mesurant la charge de morbidite lorsque vous comparez des groupes.

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L'iniquite en matiere de sante

Comprendre les determinants sociaux de la sante et les inegalites dans un milieu peut contribuer a determiner ou existent les inegalites en matiere de sante, a guider l'allocation des ressources et a adapter les programmes de sante publique. Ce module commence par les determinants sociaux de la sante et la facon dont ils influencent et affectent les resultats de sante. Les inegalites et les iniquites en matiere de sante sont ensuite decrites, et les donnees du Health Equity Assessment Toolkit (HEAT) de l'Organisation mondiale de la sante sont utilisees pour presenter et calculer les mesures de l'inegalite. A l'issue de ce module, vous comprendrez les inegalites et les iniquites en matiere de sante et vous saurez comment les evaluer pour une population donnee.

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Prise de decision factuelle

De grandes quantites de donnees de sante sont recueillies par les pouvoirs publics. Bien qu'une partie de l'analyse des donnees soit generalement effectuee, les donnees ne sont pas toujours utilisees pour prendre des decisions. Ce module permet de comprendre les donnees de sante publique et la maniere dont elles sont utilisees pour guider la planification de la sante publique, l'allocation des ressources et l'elaboration des politiques. Il offre aux employes du service public un cadre pour ameliorer l'utilisation des donnees pour la prise de decision. A l'issue de ce module, vous pourrez adopter une approche structuree pour prendre des decisions fondees sur les donnees afin d'ameliorer la sante de la population.

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Evaluation des donnees de sante de routine

Il ne faut pas analyser les donnees sans avoir verifier avec soin les erreurs et reflechi a la qualite de ces donnees. Des hypotheses incorrectes ou des interpretations erronees dues a une mauvaise evaluation des donnees peuvent entrainer une decision ou une action erronee, susceptible d'avoir des effets nefastes sur la sante et de gaspiller des fonds qui pourraient etre utilises de maniere plus fructueuse. Ce module vous propose une approche d'evaluation des donnees de sante publique de routine et la gestion des problemes de qualite des donnees.

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Using CRVS Data in Public Health Journalism

As data become more prevalent and accessible, good reporting on civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS)—at the community, national, and global levels—requires journalists who can understand and use data. This e-learning course builds the data use skills of journalists to develop stories related to CRVS. The course will provide a detailed overview of CRVS—what it is and why it is important, including for human rights and equity—and build skills related to data use in reporting. Topics covered include: common data-related terms and concepts; primary sources of CRVS data; basic methods for analyzing, interpreting, and visualizing CRVS data; and effective tactics for interviewing public health experts and leaders about data-rich topics. This course is designed for journalists who write about public health topics, and participants will be guided in developing a CRVS-related data story for publication.

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Communicating with Data: Writing Public Health Reports

Well-written, accurate, and accessible reports are critical tools for communicating public health data and for advancing policies that are responsive to the issues data reveal. All public health agencies should produce data reports and tailor them to a variety of audiences. This short course provides guidance on writing data reports, suggestions on how and when to produce specific kinds of reports, and ideas to help organizations assess their report-writing needs. The course is designed for surveillance and epidemiology staff who wish to communicate data to external audiences, and also to communications staff who wish to incorporate data into ministry or health department communications products or websites.

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Certification medicale de la cause du deces

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Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS) Systems Improvement Framework [Full Learning Program]

The CRVS Systems Improvement Framework provides countries with the tools to assess and improve their CRVS systems and processes that brings stakeholders together to solve problems.

The Framework's purpose is to guide the analysis, redesign, and monitoring of the business processes that are at the foundation of CRVS systems. For example, these include the review, revision, and measurement of end-to-end activities for registering births and deaths, and assigning causes of death for vital events occurring both in and outside of health facilities. The course provides detailed and interactive learning materials to build skills to apply resources and tools from the framework.

This self-guided e-learning course is designed to help CRVS system planners and administrators implement the Framework. There are three modules that complement the framework:

  • Module 1: Introduction to the CRVS Systems Improvement Framework
  • Module 2: Assessment, analysis, and redesign of CRVS business processes
  • Module 3: Strategic planning, implementing an action plan, and monitoring and evaluating progress

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Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS) Systems Improvement Framework [Module 1 Only]

This course, titled Introduction to CRVS Systems Improvement Framework, provides a key learning opportunity for the strengthening of civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems in low- and middle-income countries and for enhancing CRVS systems processes. It offers a strong introduction to the Framework and provides the insight needed to support system improvement. This module is suited for senior government officials, policymakers, or development partners who support CRVS systems strengthening who may not need the level of detail offered in the Full Learning Program.

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Communication for development for CRVS practitioners

The Communication for Development e-learning Course has been developed for Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS) practitioners interested in learning how to apply communication for development approaches to achieve timely, effective, and universal civil registration of vital events. The course comprises six self-learning modules and takes about 3-4 hours to complete.

Social norms and customs often pose severe obstacles to reaching civil registration services. Even when civil registration services are accessible for most of the population, power relations in the family and gender inequalities often play a role. Also, the understanding of the importance of civil registration might be low among community members, health workers, and other authorities, and the public pressure to register vital events is lacking. Leaders or other respected people in the communities must set a good example of using and advocating for registration services.

This course shows how it is possible to increase the acceptance, demand, and use of civil registration services, and how governments can achieve these improvements through the development of strategic action plans for social and behavior change interventions. The strategic interventions should address barriers on individual, social, and environmental levels, and ensure the communication is based on dialogue with communities and addressing social and collective change, not individual behavior.

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Importance of Civil Registration and Vital Statistics

Accurate civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) data are critical to understanding national health status and developing appropriate strategies and relevant policies to improve population health. In the absence of CRVS data, countries lack a clear picture of birth and death rates and the causes of death. This data gap makes it difficult to allocate resources appropriately to health, education, and other key government sectors. As part of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Data for Health Initiative, countries around the world are investing in expanding and improving the quality of the CRVS systems. However, unless data are regularly analyzed and used, neither government nor citizens will not reap the benefits of this investment. Vital statistics generated by well-functioning civil registration systems are crucial for policy development and decision-making and are central to monitoring several Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets.

Here in Module 1 of 10, you'll get an overview of CRVS and the social and health benefits from high-quality data from civil registration records. Participants will learn about the public health uses of data from CRVS systems, including developing public health policies, monitoring health systems, and evaluating public health programs. Upon completion of the module, participants will understand how to define civil registration and vital statistics, the types of vital records recognized by the UN, and both the challenges and benefits of CRVS systems.

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Assessing CRVS Data Quality and Completeness

During Module 2, participants will understand how low-quality data can adversely affect the accuracy of vital statistics. The module reviews methods (both direct and indirect) on estimating the completeness of birth and death registration and how to assess the plausibility of mortality measures. Participants will also learn about the importance of high-quality cause-of-death data and how this data can be assessed, using tools such as ANACoD4 or ANACONDA.

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Basic Measures from Vital Statistics: Births

This module introduces birth statistics that are important for monitoring, tracking Sustainable Development Goals, reporting, and understanding the fertility trends in a country. Upon completion of the module, participants will know how to calculate birth statistics such as sex ratio, crude birth rate, and total fertility rate, which are important to report on in a national vital statistics report.

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Basic Measures from Vital Statistics: Deaths

The module on death statistics provides an overview of mortality measures that are important for monitoring, tracking Sustainable Development Goals, reporting, and understanding the mortality trends in a country. These measures include: the crude death rate, age-specific mortality rates, under-5 mortality rate, and the infant mortality rate. Participants will learn about the importance of age standardization to account for the differing age distributions across populations. Finally, participants will be introduced to how to calculate key mortality measures using life tables.

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Causes of Death

Upon completion of this module, participants will understand how cause of death (COD) data are generated, including the sources of COD data, and how to conduct basic analyses of this data. Participants will also learn why COD data are important for various stakeholders (e.g., agencies, researchers, medical practitioners) and how COD data can be used. Finally, the module will provide an overview of verbal autopsy, which is used to ascertain cause of death and cause-specific mortality fractions when medical certification of cause of death (MCCD) is unavailable.

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Analyzing and Interpreting Vital Statistics

Module 6 will help participants understand how to use descriptive epidemiology to assess and interpret vital statistics. This will include using epidemiological topics such as rate difference and rate ratio to compare and make meaning of vital statistics. Participants will gain an understanding of inequalities in mortality when disaggregating vital statistics by demographic factors and learn how to calculate and interpret excess mortality, an important concept to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Communicating Vital Statistics Through Visualizations

Upon completion of this module, participants will be able to describe and compare the main types of visualizations used to depict vital statistics and understand the factors involved in determining which visualization best suits a communication purpose. Participants will also understand important design principles that contribute to effective data visualization.


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Advanced Measures

In this module, participants will dive deeper into how CRVS data can be applied to calculate epidemiological measures such as attributable mortality, years of life lost (YLL), and measures to assess the burden of disease.

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Disseminating Vital Statistics

This session provides an overview of how to identify and communicate findings to a targeted audience and how to identify the best way to communicate the message. Participants will learn about different types of analytical reports, including national vital statistics reports, that can be produced to disseminate vital statistics and learn about other types of media, such as press release, to communicate findings.

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Using Vital Statistics to Inform Policy and Planning

Upon completion of this module, participants will understand how vital statistics can be used to inform policy decisions, program planning, and program evaluation. Participants will hear about examples of where CRVS indicators such as cause-specific mortality and infant mortality rate were used to identify a problem and evaluate a program.

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Webisode - Assessing CRVS Data Quality and Completeness

This webisode provides an overview of how to use indirect methods to calculate the denominator and numerator to assess birth and death registration completeness. A demonstration of a completeness calculator using sample country data is provided.

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Webisode - Verbal Autopsy

In this webisode, participants will receive an overview of verbal autopsy (VA) and learn how VA can be used for population-level cause of death reporting.

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Webisode - Excess Mortality

In this webisode, participants will learn the calculation and use of excess mortality to understand the impact of an event on mortality, specifically the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Webisode - Communicating Vital Statistics Through Visualizations

This webisode reviews design principles important for developing effective visualizations using CRVS data. These visualizations can then be used in CRVS reporting, such as in a vital statistics report or online dashboard. Participants will watch a demonstration of how to use design principles to make a visualization more effective.

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Webisode - Using the Vital Statistics Report Resource Kit

This webisode provides an overview of the Vital Statistics Report resource kit, which includes a Guide, Template, and Excel Workbook to help develop a vital statistics report.

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Communicating with Data: Disseminating Public Health Reports

The value of a public health report is achieved when the information registers and is internalized by the appropriate audiences and catalyzes positive action. Making sure that public health reports are seen by the intended audiences is a critical step in the report production process. Dissemination activities need to be considered as a step in the report production process to ensure that enough resources, including time, personnel, budget and expertise, are allocated to these tasks. This short course was developed to provide strategic guidance on developing an overall dissemination strategy and best practices on distilling key messages and communicating findings from reports to the intended audiences. The course is designed for surveillance and epidemiology staff who wish to communicate data to external audiences, and also to communications staff who wish to incorporate data into ministry or health department communications products or websites.

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